Text Size

A A A  

NPDB History

1986 – The Health Care Quality Improvement Act

  • Congress passes the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 (HCQIA). This legislation is intended to protect peer review bodies from private money damage liability and to prevent incompetent practitioners from moving state to state without disclosure or discovery of previous damaging or incompetent performance.
  • President Ronald Reagan signs Title IV of Public Law 99-660, the HCQIA, which led to the National Practitioner Data Bank's (NPDB) establishment.

1988 – Development of the NPDB

  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), and Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr) begins developing the NPDB. HRSA contracts with Unisys Corporation to develop and operate the NPDB.

1989 – Final Regulations Published

  • Final NPDB regulations (45 CFR part 60) are published in the Federal Register.
  • NPDB Executive Committee convenes its first meeting.

1990 – NPDB Opens to Support Peer Review and Credentialing

  • Operating out of Camarillo, California, NPDB opens September 1st and begins collecting reports on medical malpractice payments and adverse licensure, clinical privileges, and professional society membership actions taken against practitioners. Hospitals, health care entities, and state licensing boards begin querying the NPDB.
  • The system is designed to be self-supporting through query fees. All transactions are paper-based.
  • Average query response time is six weeks.
  • The first NPDB Guidebook is published, providing policy guidance to NPDB users.

1991 – NPDB Processes Queries

  • NPDB processes 809,900 queries, an average of 16,000 names per week.

1992 – Electronic Querying Introduced

  • Electronic querying is introduced using new QPRAC software, version 1.0. Queries may be submitted via modem or diskette; responses are returned on paper. Average query response time is reduced to one week.

1993 – NPDB Receives NCQA Endorsement and Federal Leadership Award

  • Endorsing the value of NPDB data, the National Committee for Quality Assurance adopts an accreditation standard encouraging health maintenance organizations to query the NPDB.
  • BHPr's Division of Quality Assurance (DQA), which manages the NPDB, receives a 1993 Federal Leadership Award for its efforts to reduce paper processing by the NPDB.
  • NPDB accepts query payments by credit card.

1994 – Practitioners May Add Statements to Reports

  • A practitioner with a report in the NPDB may now add his or her own statement to the report, which will be disclosed to queriers.
  • NPDB implements automated fee collection through Electronic Funds Transfer. Queriers can preauthorize the NPDB to debit their bank accounts directly for query fees.
  • QPRAC version 2.0 is introduced, allowing the NPDB to respond electronically to queries.
  • HRSA contracts with SRA International to develop and operate the 2nd Generation NPDB.
  • More than 1.5 million queries are processed this year, an average of 30,000 per week. More than half of all queries are electronic.
  • Average query response time is two to three days.

1995 – NPDB Collects More Than 100,000 Reports

  • All paper queries, except practitioner self-queries, are eliminated. Reports submitted to the NPDB exceed 100,000.
  • SRA International begins operating the 2nd Generation of the NPDB in Fairfax, Virginia.
  • Voluntary queries (submitted by entities not mandated by law to query) outnumber required queries for the first time.
  • Responses to queries now include whether Secretarial Review of the report has been requested and the status of any such review.

1996 – Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

  • The Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, acting through the Office of Inspector General (OIG), is directed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 to create the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) to combat fraud and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery. Health care fraud burdens the nation with enormous financial costs and threatens the quality of health care and patient safety. The HIPDB's authorizing statute is more commonly referred to as Section 1128E of the Social Security Act. Final regulations governing the HIPDB are codified at 45 CFR Part 61.
  • NPDB users can now submit reports and update registration information electronically using QPRAC version 3.0.
  • The Blizzard of '96 blankets the Washington, D.C. area with 20 inches of snow. Although no NPDB staff are able to get to the office, the NPDB processes more than 20,000 queries.
  • More than 2.7 million queries are processed this year, an average of 52,000 per week.
  • Average query response time is six hours or less.

1997 – HRSA Asked to Coordinate NPDB with New Data Bank

  • Because of the NPDB's success, HHS Office of Inspector General asks BHPr's Division of Quality Assurance to design, develop, and operate the new Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB)— a health care fraud and abuse prevention database. By law, NPDB and HIPDB must coordinate operations.
  • NPDB queriers begin receiving Medicare and Medicaid exclusion information on practitioners.

1998 – Health Care Entities Query More than 15 Million Times

  • State licensing boards, hospitals, and other health care entities have queried the NPDB more than 15 million times since 1990.
  • NPDB processes more than 1,000 Secretarial Reviews of reports since 1990.
  • Reports submitted to the NPDB exceed 200,000.

1999 – NPDB and HIPDB Begin Operating on the Internet

  • For the first time, the NPDB and HIPDB begin accepting reports and single-name queries submitted through a secure internet site using the new Integrated Querying and Reporting Service (IQRS).
  • More than 3.2 million NPDB queries are processed during the year, an average of six queries a minute, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, or a query approximately every 10 seconds.
  • Average query response time is four to six hours.

2000 – NPDB Turns 10 Years Old

  • NPDB enters the new millennium Y2K-trouble free.
  • NPDB celebrates 10 years of successful operation.
  • More than 3.2 million NPDB queries are processed during the year, an average of six queries a minute, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, or one query approximately every 10 seconds.
  • HIPDB opens for querying.
  • Average query response time is reduced from six to four hours.
  • The Data Bank introduces the Interface Control Document (ICD) Transfer Program (ITP), an alternative to the IQRS for large-volume queriers and reporters who wish to interface their own data processing systems directly with the Data Bank to submit reports and queries.

2001 – Online Self-Query Service Debuts

  • Improvements are made to the self-query service as self-queriers are able to submit self-query data electronically through the NPDB-HIPDB secure website. After transmitting a self-query, the process is completed by printing and mailing the notarized self-query application to the Data Bank. Self-queries are processed within 48 hours, and self-query status can be tracked online.
  • DQA becomes the Division of Practitioner Data Banks (DPDB).

2002 – NPDB Receives Recognition

  • The Division of Practitioner Data Banks receives an Electronic Government Trailblazer Award for the NPDB-HIPDB. This award highlights federal, state, local, and international government programs that have successfully implemented the most innovative information systems in e-Government. The award-winning programs are user-friendly online models for effective e-Government.
  • The Data Bank introduces the online Report Response Service for efficient processing of self-queries while maintaining strict security standards. The Report Response Service allows report subjects to electronically maintain current address information with the Data Bank; add, modify, or remove Subject Statements; initiate or withdraw disputes; and elevate or withdraw requests for Secretarial Review online. Previously, subjects performed these functions via paper correspondence.

2003 – IQRS Introduces On-Line Entity and Agent Registration

  • The Data Bank introduces online entity and authorized agent registration, replacing the paper registration forms and paper-based registration process. On-screen instructions and help file information provide immediate assistance, enabling simplified online registration.
  • Registered users of the Data Bank reaches 16,000.

2004 – Data Bank Wins 2004 Excellence.gov Award

  • The NPDB-HIPDB program is named an "Excellence.gov Top Five Award" finalist—the highest award given—in a ceremony at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. Excellence.gov was established to recognize the best practices in Federal Electronic Government (e-Gov) applications. The awards are given to Federal organizations for their outstanding information technology (IT) achievements in the public service arena. The Excellence.gov Awards focused on governance models used in e-Government projects that cross organizational boundaries.
  • The Data Bank makes IQRS report and query history available to users, enabling users to obtain a summary of subjects that have been previously queried on (or reported on) over the past four years by their entity.
  • BHPr reorganizes and renames the former DPDB to the Practitioner Data Banks Branch (PDBB).

2005 – Querying and Reporting XML Service (QRXS) Introduced

  • The Data Bank introduces the QRXS, an alternative to the IQRS and the ITP for users who wish to interface their own data processing system directly with the Data Bank to submit reports and receive responses using industry standard XML format.
  • Average query response time is now less than two hours.
  • The NPDB has processed over 36 million queries since 1991 and maintains over 375,000 reports.
  • The HIPDB has processed over 5 million queries since 2000 and maintains over 225,000 reports.

2006 – IQRS Query Workflow Streamlined

  • The IQRS query workflow is streamlined making submitting queries easier and more intuitive.
  • Average query response time is now less than one hour.
  • Completed the year-long registration renewal effort, resulting in more than 16,500 entities and agents updating their registrations with the Data Bank.

2007 – Proactive Disclosure Service Prototype (PDS) Launched

  • The PDS is implemented on April 30, 2007. Subscribing entities now receive notification within one business day of new reports received by the Data Bank to encourage on-going monitoring.
  • The first PDS Notification is sent to a subscribing entity on May 9, 2007.

2008 – The PDS Celebrates its First Anniversary

  • In only its first year, 111,670 practitioners were enrolled in the PDS by 328 entities.
  • BHPr reorganizes and renames the former PDBB to the Division of Practitioner Data Banks (DPDB).
  • The Data Bank introduces querying for QRXS.

2009 – The Data Bank Goes "Green"

  • The Data Bank implements consolidated output to users querying the NPDB and HIPDB.
  • The Data Bank introduces PDS for QRXS.

2010 – The Data Bank Expands the NPDB with Section 1921

  • The Data Bank opens Section 1921 for reporting and querying on March 1, 2010. Section 1921 expands the information collected and disseminated through the NPDB to include all licensure actions taken against all health care practitioners, not just physicians and dentists, as well as health care entities.
  • The Data Bank launches a major compliance initiative that seeks to improve the accuracy and completeness of report data. The initial effort focuses on state licensing boards with lapses in Data Bank reporting. The compliance effort offers education and technical assistance to ensure entities meet reporting and querying requirements.
  • A total of 546 State Boards are reviewed in 2010, and 33.8% of them are determined to be compliant at the first compliance posting in July.

2011 – Continuous Query is Here to Stay

  • On September 23, 2011, the prototype status was officially removed from the PDS; in addition, PDS received its name change to Continuous Query. By September 2011, 2,142 entities had enrolled 872,878 practitioners in Continuous Query.
  • Based on a usability study and interviews with Data Bank users, the Report Input form undergoes profound changes to simplify data entry, reduce error, and streamline the report submission process. In related improvements, report search and navigation processes are also significantly overhauled to make the user experience more intuitive and less complex.

2012 – The Data Bank Introduces Report Forwarding to State Boards

  • In January 2012, the Data Bank introduced report forwarding via an electronic Notice of Action. The Notice of Action is a method of providing a state licensing board an electronic copy of a Medical Malpractice Payment, Clinical Privilege Action or Professional Society Action Report. The electronic Notice of Action fulfills the legal obligation of the reporter to provide a copy of the final report to the state licensing board, alleviates the burden of mailing copies to the state licensing boards, and helps ensure the accuracy of state licensing board records.
  • The Temporary Record of Submission became a thing of the past in April 2012 when reports became available in real time—improving user workflows.
  • On July 1, the Data Bank publishes laudable results for its compliance effort to date, with a total of 829 State Boards having been reviewed; 93% of the professions they represent are determined to be in compliance. A new compliance reporting tool enables map-based selection of compliance results by state or by profession.

2013 – The NPDB-HIPDB Merges Into One Data Bank

  • On May 6, 2013, the HIPDB merged into the NPDB. Information previously collected and disclosed through the HIPDB is now collected and disclosed through the NPDB.
  • The sunset of ITP begins September 30 whereby ITP no longer accepts reports.

2014 – QRXS Fully Replaces ITP

  • In January 2017, entities are no longer permitted to sign up for ITP.
  • On July 31, 2014, ITP no longer accepts queries and is permanently replaced by QRXS.

2015 – NPDB Turns 25 Years Old

  • The NPDB updates its Guidebook in April 2015 to reflect changes resulting from the NPDB-HIPDB merger and publishes a new web version in July, making it user friendly, linkable, and easy to search. The Guidebook reflects all NPDB governing regulations.
  • In May 2015, the website is redesigned, with state-of-the-art self-service features and enhanced querying forms. Users find answers faster, without having to contact the Customer Service Center.
  • The NPDB provides organizations with a new pre-payment option for querying.
  • A new, paperless registration process allows users to upload their registration paperwork directly to NPDB, saving users time and mailing costs.
  • The NPDB improves login workflow for Authorized Agents and Credentials Verification Organizations (CVOs) based on user feedback. Agents and CVOs can accomplish querying and reporting tasks for any number of entities with a single sign in.
  • The NPDB processes more than 6.7 million queries, an average of 12 queries per minute or one query every 5 seconds, and reports submitted exceed 1.2 million.

2016 – Security Enhancements

2017 – NPDB Introduces Expanded Compliance Effort

  • In March 2017, the NPDB replaces paper-based electronic funds transfer (EFT) account authorization process with an online process that enables next-day activation.
  • In August 2017, the NPDB expands the Attestation compliance initiative to health centers. Attestation is a national education and outreach effort to ensure all eligible organizations meet their reporting requirements.
  • To improve security and self-service capabilities, users are able reset their passwords using two factor authentication.